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By analyzing poker strategy with certain subjects given testosterone treatment, a recent study suggests that testosterone motivates people primarily for reputable-status seeking based on reputation concerns rather than for materialistic and greedy desires (van Honk, J. et al. Effects of Testosterone Administration on Strategic Gambling in Poker Play. Sci. Rep. 6, 18096; doi: 10.1038/srep18096 (2016)).
These findings, which reinforce testosterone as a motivator for humans to strive for social dominance, are consistent with the widespread use of testosterone replacement therapy products by men for non-medical reasons such as increasing physical development and performance and counteracting the symptoms of the natural aging process.
However, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved testosterone replacement therapy products only to treat hypogonadism, which is a disease in which the body is unable to produce normal amounts of testosterone. Regardless, doctors prescribe testosterone replacement therapy drugs, medications and treatments to treat low testosterone in millions of men in the U.S. each year, with annual sales exceeding $2 billion. These products may be in the form of injection, gel, implant, patch or pill, which may cause side effects and conditions ranging from mood disorders to heart attack, stroke, blood clots, or even death.
As a result, on June 19, 2014, the FDA required testosterone therapy product manufacturers to include a general warning in the drug labeling of all approved testosterone products about the risk of blood clots in the veins (venous thromboembolism), including deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism.
Since then, over 3,800 lawsuits against manufacturers of testosterone replacement therapy drugs, medications and treatments have been filed. In June 2014, many of the lawsuits were consolidated into a multidistrict litigation (MDL) in Illinois federal court to resolve common issues among the cases (In re: Testosterone Replacement Therapy Products Liability Litigation, MDL No. 2545). Bellwether trials to test jury reaction to lawsuits selected as representative of the MDL plaintiff pool are scheduled throughout 2017. The outcome of these bellwether trials may encourage an appropriate group settlement of all MDL lawsuits, as large plaintiff verdicts may prompt the testosterone replacement therapy defendants to consider settlement instead of incurring the risk of additional legal fees, court costs and judgments.
If you or a family member have taken testosterone replacement therapy drugs, medications or treatments (with or without experiencing side effects or related conditions), you and/or your family member may be entitled to money damages.